Saturday, March 14, 2020

Working Style of Microsoft essays

Working Style of Microsoft essays In this article How Microsoft Builds Software the author has tried to draw our attention towards the style of designing software by Microsoft. Microsoft is regarded as one of the pioneers in the development of various software applications like WinNT, Microsoft Office etc. The author is trying to show how Microsoft drifted from the general notion of writing software or designing applications and how they reaped success through their effort and making a niche for themselves in the software industry. Microsofts key practices in product development may initially look like they are following the methods used by hackers in the early stages of the software programming to design application, this may be true in some way as Microsoft uses the same concept of small teams in designing applications and making changes as and when necessary thereby improving these products by incrementally evolving their features. This small teams interact with each other almost on daily basis with common development languages, common coding styles, standardized development tools, bringing in customers off the street to try prototypes in their lab, delivering the software on the due date that are good enough and improving the product thorough further development and releasing more versions of the product. The approach used by Microsoft called Synch-and-Stabilize, without this approach it would have never been able to capture the software industry and continue to do so in the future. In this rapidly changing world of software Spiral Model of software engineering in designing applications; it has same t...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

E-commerce Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

E-commerce - Literature review Example E-commerce will embody the selling of anything from goods and services by the use of internet using computers that are linked together. Gunasekaran and Ngai (2005) in contrast to Adham & Ahmad (2005) argue that beyond being strictly committed to internet businesses, e-commerce also involves improvement in business functions for traditional retailers. They also argue that it also helps face many businesses tasks including development, marketing, communication, sales and more. These innovations in prevailing business functions radicallydevelop productivity, sales and more. According to Gunasekaran and Ngai (2005) and Shin-Ping (2008), e-commerce is doing various businesses via the internet, since these days the world has become a web in which one has to worry about other businesses, and have an interaction, collaboration and exchanging of various business data with other businesses. However, Boateng, Heeks, Molla and Hinson (2008) there is some concern about the security of e-commerce and this is done through the examination of the current status of the framework under the e-Privacy Directive, and contemplation concerning the inclusion of a harmonized framework in the Data Protection Directive. Their findings show that in order for these connections to happen, there has to be a connection between one organization and another. E-commerce enables information interchange on demand to a unified platform where a company can connect to all its partners and customers and integrate easily. Many companies tend to work together for producing ecommerce platforms whichimprove their customers’ experience as it increases their brand awareness. According to Blythe (2012), Bharadwaj and Soni (2007) and Sumanjeet (2010), for these companies to achieve this, they have to ensure that their websites are compatible with Search Engine Optimization (SEO), easy to use by the customers and other back-end prospective, and it was

Monday, February 10, 2020

JOURNALISM AND DEFARMATION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

JOURNALISM AND DEFARMATION - Essay Example Journalists handle critical stories each day and have to remain on guard each time. Staying on guard will prevent them from getting overwhelmed by the stories and going overboard to publicize public opinion concerning the stories. Therefore, a journalist will need adequate research from reliable sources before publishing any story. However, it is proving much more difficult for journalists to reserve their opinion especially in the current world whereby there are so many media forums1. In the recent past, many journalists have found themselves in much trouble. For example, the yahoo organization fired one of its chief journalists after making a joke about the Romney campaigns. According to many people, Yahoo took the joke with too much weight yet the journalists uttered the statement without malice. In other numerous cases, journalists find themselves sued for causing damages on the reputation of others2. The law classifies such cases as defamation3. However, the law provides defence s that journalists can use in such cases4. The first defense that a journalist can use is justification. Being able to present proof that what the journalist published concerning a plaintiff is true. This requires journalists to publish information after careful research from reliable sources. Justification may require the journalist to present a witness in court in order to expose the truth in what he published. Presenting a reliable justification will serve to clear the plaintiff’s claims of defamation. If the court establishes that the journalist only said something that is true, then he clears the defendant of the charges5. However, the court does not need the defendant to prove beyond doubt that the statement under investigation is true. The courts consider a lower level that involves presenting acceptable proof that the statements made about the plaintiff are true. The challenge for many journalists lies in convincing a witness to testify before a court. Sometimes, thes e witnesses present information in privacy and decline to appear in the limelight. It is worthy noting that regardless of the fact that the standard of ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ does not apply, a court may expect a high level of contextual truth because it expects journalists to be cautious of the statements they make. The second form of defense occurs in the presence of a conviction indicating that the plaintiff had previously faced a conviction regarding the act mentioned in the statement claimed to be defamatory. However, the court will require substantial evidence of conviction in order to prove that the convictions made translate to the statement under investigation. This will require evidence of several instances. For example, making a claim that someone lacks integrity to hold office will require at least two convictions concerning abuse of office6. However, depending on the conviction and the time elapsed; the court may consider the conviction spent. Therefore, a journalist must understand the spending duration of different convictions before drawing conclusions. In other cases, the journalist may use the defence of ‘fair comment’ and give proof to the court that any individual in such a situation would draw similar situations7. This

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Why Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Great Man Essay Example for Free

Why Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Great Man Essay â€Å"†¦History is created by people and the role of the individual cannot be denied, even though it needs to be seen in a historical context. While there are limits to the role played by individuals, might the part they play in critical circumstances be decisive in the chain of causality? Pertaining to this ‘Great Man Theory’ it can be said that Franklin Delano Roosevelt upheld his victorious and highly regarded government through means of social, economic and political reforms, as well as ambitious personal and strategic decisions that have successfully remained influential to American society today and maintained his image as a prominent historic leader. Franklin Roosevelt was the 32nd President of America from 1933 – 1945, eminent historian Sean J Savage articulated that Roosevelt remained a central figure in world events during the 20th Century, leading the United States through a time of world wide economic depression and war. In his first hundred days in office, which began March 4, 1933, Roosevelt spearheaded major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal; a variety of programs designed to induce relief like government jobs for the unemployed, recovery through economic growth and reform through regulation of Wall Street and major banks as stated by Professor John Simkin. Following the example of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt, whom he greatly admired, Franklin D. Roosevelt entered public service through politics, but as a Democrat. The White House Presidential website provides a patriotic American insight based on primary sources that when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt directed organization of the Nations manpower and resources for global war, feeling that the future peace of America relied upon relations between itself and Russia. Roosevelt devoted much thought to the planning of a United Nations, in which, he hoped, international difficulties could be settled. As the war drew to a close, Roosevelts health deteriorated, and on April 12, 1945, while at Warm Springs, Georgia, he died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Franklin Roosevelt is named as one of the most transcendent American Presidents in history due to his influence over the Democratic Party and the regimes it implemented. Roosevelt fought to change the Democratic Party and make it a united coalition through which America would thrive. The Democratic Party put together a formidable coalition whose main components were lower-income groups in the great cities; African-Americans, union members, and ethnic and religious minorities, many from recent immigrant groups, this coalition aimed to improve and bring American lives to great new consummate levels (Tennen, 2012). As Susan Dunn emphasizes in Roosevelts Purge; FDR was motivated not merely by personal pique and short-term legislative goals but by a vision of a refashioned party system, he worried that the Democratic Party would remain a chronically weak minority party unless it clearly distinguished itself as a liberal organization and improved its appeal among voters dissatisfied with republican policies. Peri E Arnold, American historian and college professor explains that in early 1937 Roosevelt surprised Congress with judicial reform and executive reorganization bills that he and his newly formed Democrats had assembled; by 1938 those bills, along with economic measures such as the New Deal, were treated indecisively by conservative Democrats. This Democratic Party and Roosevelt’s ideals helped ensure that effective relief efforts were introduced and would allow Roosevelt to help to play an integral part in WWII. Roosevelt’s involvement in the Great Depression and WWII was essential for these incidences to occur the way they did. The Great Depression in the United States began on October 29, 1929, a day known forever after as Black Tuesday, when the American stock market–which had been roaring steadily upward for almost a decade; crashed, plunging the country into its most severe economic downturn yet (University of Virginia, 2010). When Roosevelt was elected into presidency he promised that under his government he would act decisively to end the Depression. Once in office, FDR said yes to almost every plan put forward by advisors and congress said yes to almost ever program proposed b the President. Barbara Welke from the History Channel Website provides information on the programs Roosevelt initiated; one part of the whole program was to promote recovery, supply relief to the needy and furnish permanent reforms especially in banks and stock exchanges. WWII ended both the temporary New Deal programs and the Depression the Roosevelt government was attempting to cure but many facets of the New Deal have remained features of American life from the 1930’s until the present. Barbara Welke author and reporter stated that FDR spearheaded the successful wartime alliance between the Soviet Union, Britain and the US. And that he helped to lay the groundwork for the post-war peace organization that would become the United Nations. While many favor Roosevelt’s decision Republicans and several members of congress argue that he made some poor appointments such as never giving his quickly put together war administration real organization. Robert A Guisepi, an American correspondent believes that another way of understanding Roosevelt’s Depression fighting efforts is to analyze the New Deal Initiative. The Aim of the New Deal was essentially conservative and it sought to save capitalism and the fundamental institutions of American from the disaster of the Great Depression. The New Deal was a successful and positive economic and social advancement which Roosevelt played a pivotal role in initiating. Roosevelt made strenuous attempts to help those without work but as well as this also attempted to reduce the misery for those who were unable to work through funding. Deb Tennen, author of Society in FDR’S New Deal emphasizes the success of the temporary closure on all banks to halt the run on deposits; he formed a â€Å"Brain Trust† of economic advisors who designed the alphabet soup agencies. These agencies were created as part of the New Deal to combat the economic depression and prevent another stock market crash in the US and were established during Roosevelt’s first hundred days of office (Clifird Berryman Library of Congress 2007). Ronald Reigan 40th President of American and Republican Party leader stated upon reflection of FDR’s New Deal â€Å"With his alphabet soup of federal agencies, FDR in many ways set in motion the forces that later sought to create big government and bring a form of veiled socialism to America†¦.. He called for cutting federal spending by twenty-five percent, eliminating useless boards and commissions and returning to states and communities powers that had been wrongfully seized by the federal government†¦Ã¢â‚¬  By 1936 the economy showed signs of improvement. Gross national product was up 34 percent and unemployment had dropped from 25 percent to 14 percent (Berryman, 2007). Chris Trueman opposes this success stating that Roosevelt increased government spending, encouraged unbalanced budgets and attempted to advance America towards socialism. Chris Trueman; Author and historian enthusiast explains that those who criticize the New Deal claim that it never actually got rid of unemployment in America and that Roosevelts New Deal only had short term impact which lulled the unemployed into thinking that all their troubles were at an end. However The White House Presidential Website argues that, for many Americans in the 1930s, Roosevelt was the president who included in his policies the people who had felt excluded by politics once the Depression had taken its hold; now the excluded were the included. The New Deal Initiative was an economically and socially positive regime which would power the Democratic Party for the next thirty years. This regime along with other critical personal and strategic decisions, helped to confirm Franklin Roosevelt’s position as a favored and highly regarded President who continues to influence America today. Franklin Roosevelt and his administration ensured he maintained his influential status as one of America’s greatest President’s. Franklin Roosevelt tried to establish a close relationship with the American people. Roosevelt talked to the American people by radio to explain what actions were being taken and what he planned for the future; these radio broadcasts helped him gain widespread support for his programs. Suzanne Bilyeu iterates frequently in her report that Under Roosevelt the American federal government assumed new and powerful roles in the nation’s economy, in its corporate life and in the health, welfare and well-being of its citizens. The legislation he pushed through congress as part of his New Deal not only helped ease the Depression, it also formed the underpinnings of the modern welfare state. Bilyeu credits Roosevelt with rescuing capitalism and America’s way of life at a time when widespread economic misery made socialism and communism more appealing to many. Father Charles E Coughlin a radio priest from Detroit and critic of Roosevelt however, argues that he opened the door to a government that was too big, too powerful and too costly for taxpayers. The Great Man Theory that a powerful figure is only as commendable as the circumstances that surround him and the person that he is are precise of Franklin Roosevelt. He has remained an influential presidential figure from his election into government up until present day due to his battle and triumph through the Great Depression and World War II, his strong and independent reform decisions, ingenious public awareness campaigns and widespread communication, development of peace organizations, economic and social rehabilitation and New Deal programs. As a person Franklin Roosevelt was a decisive and wilful man, dedicated to the success and well being of his nation, he acted swiftly against pressing matters and resolved them with the utmost diligence.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Harry Potter is a Classic Essay -- J.K. Rowling

HARRY POTTER—MORE THAN A CONTEMPORARY PHENOMENON What makes a book a classic? What is it about a book that will have generation after generation reading it? English Literature majors could spend hours theorizing the answers to this question. One series of texts that has received publicity and wide-spread acclaim over the past seven years is the Harry Potter collection. J.K. Rowling could never have possibly imagined how her little book about a boy with broken glasses and a scar on his forehead would impact world culture. Yet today, we all discuss the â€Å"Harry Potter phenomenon† and how adults and children alike can enjoy the books. But my question is this: Will Harry Potter become a beloved classic like The Chronicles of Narnia or Great Expectations? Does Harry Potter have what it takes to be worthwhile to teach in schools, or is it just a temporary fad that individuals will look back on and remark: â€Å"Oh yeah, I remember when those books were popular?† The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines â€Å"classic† as â€Å"a work of enduring excellence.† Harry Potter’s popularity has lasted since 1998, when the first book came out. Granted Harry Potter is a series, but seven years is a long time for a book or literary piece to hold an entire world’s attention. American citizens become tired of a television series after only a few months. Though popularity doesn’t equal classic, it doesn’t mean that the Harry Potter series lacks the serious literary elements to be a classic. Shaun Johnson comments: â€Å"I dismissed the validity of said literature based on its resounding popularity. I had also grown cynical about popular culture; it was my understanding that most things therein could only be trusted for false sensationalism and no... ... Marketing and the Translation of J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter Books.† The Lion and the Unicorn 29.2 (2005): 8 pages. Maughan, Shannon. â€Å"The Harry Potter Halo.† Publisher’s Weekly 246.29 (1999): 4 pages. Minzesheimer, Bob. â€Å"Editors Crown Tolkein Lord of Science Fiction.† USA Today 3 Mar. 2003, sec. Life: 3d. Nikiforuk, Andrew. â€Å"The Real Power of Harry and Frodo.† Canadian Business 76.2 (2003): 2 pages. Radigan, Winifred M. â€Å"Connecting the Generations: Memory, Magic, and Harry Potter.† Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44.8 (2001): 2 pages. The Harry Potter Series. Advertisement. Multilingual Books. 14 Nov. 2005. http://www. Tucker, Nicholas. â€Å"The Rise and Rise of Harry Potter.† Children’s Literature in Education. 30.4 (1999): 221-35. â€Å"Wizards and Muggles.† Christian Century 116.33 (1999): 1 page.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Change over Time: the Americas Essay

The social and economic transformations in the Americas occured as a result of new contacts with Europe and Africa from 1450-1750. Large scale European immigration occured shortly after the voyages of Christopher Columbus starting in 1492. Immagrants came over to flee from religious persecution, seek economic opprotunities, part of government sponsored attempts to found colonies, or forcibly transported there as slaves or prisoners. As more and more people came to America they brought with them crops, livestock, and diseases. The Columbian exchange greatly affected the American society. It brought with it diseases, crops, and livestock. There were devastating effects of Old World diseases on Native American populations. Infectious diseases, such as smallpox, resulted in the largest death toll in the New World. New foods became staples of human diets and new growing regions opened up for crops. Two of Americas major cash crops, sugar and coffee, come from Africa and Asia. Livestock from the Europe also flourished in the New World. One of Europeans first imports, the horse, changed th lives of many Native American tribes. Trade began to become a big part of life in America. The transatlantic triangular trade operated in the 17th and 18th centuries between West Africa, the Americas, and European colonial powers. The trade represented a profitable enterprise of enslaved Africans. The use of slaves was fundamental to growing the colonial cash crops in the New World. A constant problem in the Americas was the dissagreements between the Natives and the European settlers. The settlers imposed their economic and religious beliefs on the Natives. They often tried to convert them to the European way of living. Europeans took over their land by using their advanced technology and enslaved them as workers or maids on plantations. This led to the constant wars and revolts between these two groups and ended up in many deaths of not only the Natives but the settlers too.

Monday, January 6, 2020

According To The National Institute Of Mental Health, Social

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, social anxiety is a mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 12%. It is characterized by a persistent, intense and chronic fear of being scrutinized by others when engaging in, as well as a fear of, social interactions. In this form of anxiety, individuals are afraid of saying or doing something that will embarrass or humiliate them and have unrealistic appraisals of the negative consequences of social encounters. There are many factors that contribute to social anxiety such as sexual abuse, family conflict, or a natural tendency for a child to be shy or withdrawn. The cognitive behavioral model explains how this disorder is maintained after developing. Individuals do not have to†¦show more content†¦From a young age their perception of the world is skewed and these children begin to selectively process life by using attentional bias which is when anxious people are hypervigilant for threatening stimuli more than non -anxious people. This attention can be divided into four stages: 1) orientation of attention towards a given stimulus; 2) attentional engagement with that stimulus; 3) disengagement from attending to the stimulus; and 4) avoidance of attention to the stimulus. Anxiety can be experienced in each stage. Interpretive bias is also used and it is when people that suffer from social anxiety interpret ambiguous events as negative or threatening. Results from dot-probe paradigm research showed that anxious people have greater attentional bias to threat-related stimuli than non-anxious people. This attention to threat stimuli is important to maintaining social anxiety because it conditions them to use avoidance behaviors and self-focused attention in situations that they believe threaten them (Robinson 2010). Socially anxious individuals have an issue with their perception and information processing when they are presented with a social threat their attention shifts inward and they commence an analysis of themselves from the observer’s perspective. The social standards are perceived as high, and they believe they are unable to meet those standards because of their social skills are not up to par. Self-perception isShow MoreRelatedThe Negatives Effects of Marijuana on Teenager880 Words   |  4 PagesTeenager What is Marijuana? The marijuana affects the brain development on teenager. Also affect the function at school, work, and social life of the teenagers. The marijuana increases the risk of mental health issues. 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